Chandigarh-The City Beautiful

Chandigarh-The City Beautiful

Chandigarh (Punjabi: ਚੰਡੀਗੜ੍ਹ, Hindi: चण्डीगढ़) is a union territory of India that serves as the capital of two states, Punjab and Haryana. The name Chandigarh translates as “The Fort of Chandi“. The name was coined from an ancient temple called Chandi Mandir, devoted to the Hindu Goddess Chandi, present in the city’s vicinity.

Earlier the Chandigarh Capital region was also called ‘Tricity’ because of Panchkula and Mohali as adjacent cities but with the mushrooming of other towns like Zirakpur, Kharar etc. with considerable population it is better called ‘Chandigarh Capital Region’.As the first planned city of India, Chandigarh is known internationally for its architecture and urban planning.Chandigarh is home to numerous architectural projects of  Le Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Matthew Nowicki, and Albert Mayer. The city tops the list of Indian States and Union Territories with the highest per capita income in the country at Rs.99,262 at current prices and Rs.70,361 at constant prices (2006–2007).


After the partition of British India into the two nations of India and Pakistan in 1947, the region of Punjab was also split between India and Pakistan. The Indian state of Punjab required a new capital city to replace Lahore, which became part of Pakistan during the partition. After several plans to make additions to existing cities were found to be infeasible for various reasons, the decision to construct a new and planned city was undertaken.The circle office at Chandigarh started to function in the year 1985.At present the jurisdiction of this circle for archeological work extends to the states of Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh.There are 32 protected monuments of National importance in Punjab and 89 in Haryana being maintained by the circle.This is usually referred to as Chandigarh Circle.

Of all the new town schemes in independent India, the Chandigarh project quickly assumed prime significance, because of the city’s strategic location as well as the personal interest of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India. Commissioned by Nehru to reflect the new nation’s modern, progressive outlook, Nehru famously proclaimed Chandigarh to be “unfettered by the traditions of the past, a symbol of the nation’s faith in the future.” Several buildings and layouts in Chandigarh were designed by the French (born Swiss) architect and urban planner, Le Corbusier, in the 1950s. Le Corbusier was in fact the second architect of the city, after the initial master plan was prepared by the American architect-planner Albert Mayer who was working with the Poland-born architect Matthew Nowicki. It was only after Nowicki’s death in 1950 that Le Corbusier was pulled into the project.

On 1 November 1966, the newly-formed Indian state of Haryana was carved out of the eastern portion of the Punjab, in order to create Haryana as a majority Hindi speaking state, while the western portion of Punjab retained a mostly Punjabi language-speaking majority and remained as the current day Punjab. However, the city of Chandigarh was on the border, and was thus created into a union territory to serve as capital of both these states. It was the capital of Punjab alone from 1952 to 1966. Chandigarh was due to be transferred to Punjab in 1986, in accordance with an agreement signed in August 1985 by Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, with Harchand Singh Longowal of the Akali Dal. This was to be accompanied by the creation of a new capital for Haryana, but the transfer had been delayed. There is currently a discussion about which villages in southern districts of Punjab should be transferred to Haryana, and about which Punjabi-speaking villages should be transferred to Punjab. But analysts believe that now it is not possible as none of the State governments would like to give up their claim and Chandigarh would remain to be the capital of both states and a union territory.

On 15 July 2007, Chandigarh became the first Indian city to go smoke-free. Smoking at public places was strictly prohibited and considered as a punishable act by Chandigarh Administration. That was followed up by a complete ban on polythene bags with effect from 2 October (the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi) in the year 2008

Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Shivalik range of the Himalayas in Northwest India. It covers an area of approximately 44 sq mi or 114 km². and shares its borders with the states of Haryana in the east and Punjab in the north, west and south. The exact cartographic co-ordinates of Chandigarh are 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.74°N 76.79°E / 30.74; 76.79.[8] It has an average elevation of 321 metres (1053 ft).

Average temperature

  • Spring: The climate remains quite pleasant during the spring season (from mid-February to mid-March and then from mid-September to mid-October). Temperatures vary between (max) 16 °C to 25 °C and (min) 9 °C to 18 °C.
  • Autumn: In autumn (from Mid-March to April), the temperature may rise to a maximum of 36 °C. Temperatures usually remain between 16° to 27° in autumn. The minimum temperature is around 13 °C.
  • Summer: The temperature in summer (from Mid-May to Mid-June) may rise to a maximum of 46.5 °C (rarely). Temperatures generally remain between 35 °C to 40 °C.
  • Monsoon: During monsoon(from mid-June to mid-September), Chandigarh receives moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the month of August or September). Usually, the rain bearing monsoon winds blow from south-west/ south-east. Mostly, the city receives heavy rain from south (which is mainly a persistent rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from North-west or North-east. Maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigrah during monsoon season is 195.5 mm in a single day.
  • Winter: Winters (November to Mid-March) are quite cool and it can sometimes get quite chilly in Chandigarh. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) 7 °C to 15 °C and (min) -2 °C to 5 °C. Rain usually comes from the west during winters and it is usually a persistent rain for 2–3 days with sometimes hail-storms.


Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense Banyan and Eucalyptus plantations. Asoka, Cassia, Mulberry and other trees flourish in the forested ecosystem.The city has forests surrounding it which sustain many animal and plant species. Deers, Sambars, Barking Deers, Parrots, Woodpeckers and Peacocks inhabit the protected forests. Sukhna Lake hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan in the winter season.

A parrot sanctuary located in the city is home to a variety of bird species.


Culture is generally refer to the human activity. India was the birth place of religious systems such as hinduism, sikhism each of which have had a strong influence not only in the india but also over the rest of the world. As well as the regional languages have created in the culture of india. There are a number of languages in india and all people used different different languages such as English, Hindi and many more. But there are no laws as such in the culture.

The culture of India is one of the oldest culture in the world. The culture diversites in the form of people, religions, festivals, languages, dances and many more. Every state of india has its own cultures. The constitution of India has stipulated the usage of English and Hindi to be the two official languages of communication for union government. Indian languages spoken by more than a million people.But English is spoken as a second language by more than ten million Indians.

The music and dance, arts and crafts, architecture and people all are instances of the cultural rainbow of india. The culture is a symbiotic of humanoids, who all share equal status.

The Department supports the various cultural activities in the Chandigarh U.T. It also arranges cultural Functions in association with the education department on Independence Day and Republic Day. The festival of garden (Rose Festival) the mega event of the U.T.

People of Chandigarh speak in Hindi or Punjabi or the combination of the two. In Chandigarh, there is a culture complex in sector 10, which include museum, and art gallery. World acclaimed Rock Garden with the artistic things created by Nek Chand, from broken pieces of items like crockery, bottles, plates, stones, etc is a unique example of art work. Werkmans is a Corporate law firm dedicated to helping clients receive the best possible legal outcome. Werkmans provides contractual, transactional and regulatory services to corporate clients throughout South Africa.


With ever-increasing pressure on land in the cities the open spaces are fast vanishing. There are so many things to see in Chandigarh like Rose garden, Sukhna lake, Sector 17(Markets) and Rock Garden. Chandigarh has the distinction of having world acclaimed Rock Garden and Asia’s largest Rose Garden which are very popular of tourist attraction.

Rose Garden

It was created by Nek Chand Saini, a resident of the city in 1985. Chandigarh Rose garden also known as Zakir RoseGarden is Asia’s largest Rose garden is well maintained in Chandigarh. The grass is lush-green throughout, the flower-beds are always in bloom with the seasonal flowers and the small fountain in the center is always working. Moreover, there is a good number of shady trees. The garden is visited by the people throughout the day. But the mornings and evenings are particularly busy. It is situated in Sector 16 and spread over 30 acres. The rose garden has over 50,000 rose trees of 1600 species.

The evenings here become quite colourful when lights are switched on. The children merrily play while their parents sit on the grass. This park is very famous in the Chandigarh. In Chandigarh rose garden is a very good place for morning and evening walks because the air around it is full of the intoxicating fragrance of the colorful roses. The Government has taken a great care in maintaing them and that is why flowers are not allowed to picked the visitors.

Sukhna lake

The Sukhna lake is situated in sector1 Chandigarh. Sukhna lake is very famous for its water sports like boating, canoeing etc. There are numerous facilties offered in the lake. Some facilites are shops, restaurant and many more. Moreover there is a good number of shady trees. Sukhna lake is very famous in the chandigarh. All outside tourist come and visit the lake. Sukhna lake is the perfect place to go for boating and this is also a bird watchers paradise. Numerous species of local birds as well as migratory birds can be seen around the lake. The lake is a popular picnic sport and we can also enjoy boating.

Shopping Center

It is located in sector 17. This is the main shopping center of the city. There are many private and government offices also. Sector 17 markets is full of life from morning till evening. There are all sorts of shops here viz cloth shops, Jewellery, General merchants, Booksellers, Stataioners, Shoe merchants, Tailors, Electrical applications, Dry cleaners and many more. Shops selling jewellery and ready made garments are a great attraction. For children, shops selling toys and confectionery are very favourite.

Their is always a great hustle and bustle in the market. In the evening Sector 17 market presents a colourful seen when lights are on neoon – sign boards are there. It is a very neat and clean. There are people from all walks of life. Moreover, there is a good number of shady trees. But the evernings are particularly busy and small fountain in the center which is always working.

From books to clothes to jewellery to footwear to electronic gadgets, you will get the each and every item in sector 17 market. Well Chandigarh has two satellite cities i.e. Punchkula and Mohali. Both of them share a border with it.

Rock Garden

Chandigarh also known as the Garden city of India. It was created by Shri Nek Chand Saini, a resident of the city in 1958. He belongs to the Gurdaspur district in Punjab province. The Chandigarh rock garden park is open daily from April to September between 9 AM to 1 PM and 3PM to 7PM. Between October and March, it is open from 9AM to 1PM and 2PM to 6PM. The urban waste material such as mute rocks turned into art objects and broken plugs, waste bottles, saucers, plates was turned into creative patterns. Chandigarh rock garden is a popular sport of tourist attraction. In the rock garden there are group of dancing damsels which is made from bicycle or motorcycle’s waste material.


Transport is the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The field of transport has several aspects, and they can be divided into three parts such as infrastructure, vechiles and operations. Infrastructure is generally includes the transport network like roads, railways, airways, and many more are used as well as nodes or terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stands, and many more. Vechiles are ride on the networks such as buses, trains, bicycles, aircrafts and many more. The operations deal with the way the vechiles are operated on the network and follow the some rules and regulations.

In Chandigarh, there are many transport by which we can go from one place to another like train, bus, aeroplane. Chandigarh is situated in the northern part of the country and it is connected to the major destinations of all across the country. Indian Airlines connects to Chandigarh to Delhi, Amritsar and Goa. One can also get for Jet Airways, connected to Delhi with regular flights. The airport is situated as 11 KM from the city center and taxis and auto-rickshows are always available. Chandigarh railway station is about 8 KM from the city center (Sector 17) Shatabdi Express, Jan Shatabhi and Himalayan Queen provide train connections every day between Chandigarh and Delhi. Chandigarh transport undertaking and CITCO buses with the arrival and departure of important trains. There is a pre-paid auto-rickshaw counter just outside the railway station, which has the city rates, printed on a boards. The main Chandigarh bus stand is situated in sector 17.

Chandigarh is well connected by roads to all the major centers of the region and Delhi. Even the local buses are also connected to the different different sectors in a very resionable rates. But there can be no place more crowded and noisy than a railway station in Chandigarh. If one has to catch the train or to meet someone on the platform other the one on which one is one has to climb the crowded stairs and walk down the stairs that lead to one’s platform. The hawkers add to the confusion. They rush about the platform shouting to sell their wares. Many of them go from compartment to compartment shouting tea.

Chandigarh administration

Chandigarh Administration is under the control of the Administrator who is appointed under the provisions of Art 239 of the Constitution. The administrative control of Chandigarh is under the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Adviser to the Administrator, a very senior officer equivalent to the Chief Secretary of a state, belonging to one of the All India Services, is second in command after the Administrator. S/He generally belongs to the AGMU cadre of the Indian Administrative Service.

  • The Deputy Commissioner, an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service, is the in-charge of the General Administration in the Chandigarh UT.
  • The Senior Superintendent of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, is responsible for maintaining Law & Order and related issues in the Chandigarh UT.
  • The Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is responsible for the management of the Forests, Environment, Wild-Life and Pollution Control in the Chandigarh UT.

The above three officers are generally from AGMU cadre and can also be from Punjab or Haryana cadres of the All India Services.




2 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Ayush Gupta
    Apr 15, 2011 @ 08:29:22

    was a very useful one


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